Bridgestone Blizzak WS90 Vs Michelin X-Ice Snow

Bridgestone Blizzak WS90 Vs Michelin X-Ice Snow


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Time To Read:

9 minutes

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Time To Read:

9 minutes

Winter driving can be treacherous, and the right tires might just be what stands between you and the challenges of snowy, icy roads. But with so many options, like the Bridgestone Blizzak WS90 and the Michelin X-Ice Snow, how do you choose? If you’ve ever wondered about the differences between these two top-rated winter tires, you’re in the right place.

The Bridgestone Blizzak WS90 offers slightly better performance in ice and snow conditions, making it ideal for harsher winter environments. The Michelin X-Ice Snow excels in comfort and durability, suitable for those prioritizing a quiet ride and longer tire life.

In this article, we will delve into a detailed comparison of the Bridgestone Blizzak WS90 and Michelin X-Ice Snow, covering their performance in various conditions, comfort, tread life, and also examine how they stand against other competitors in the market.

Bridgestone Blizzak WS90

Customer Rating

Overall Rating

8.8 of 10

Wet Weather

9.1 of 10

Winter Weather

9.2 of 10

Tread Wear

8.4 of 10

Dry Weather

8.8 of 10

Ride Comfort

8.5 of 10

UTQG

Uniform Tire Quality Grade

UTQG Treadwear Rating: N/A

UTQG Traction Rating: N/A

UTQG Temperature Rating: N/A

Mileage Warranty

None

Find The Best Price

Key Performance Metrics

Hydroplaning: 9.1 of 10

Wet Grip: 9.1 of 10


Cornering: 8.7 of 10

Dry Grip: 9.0 of 10

Responsiveness: 8.7 of 10

Mild Snow Grip: 9.6

Heavy Snow Grip: 9.3

Ice Grip: 8.9


Comfort Level: 8.9 of 10

Road Noise: 8.2 of 10

The Bridgestone Blizzak WS90 is renowned for its exceptional grip and stability in severe winter conditions. Let’s break down what the performance scores really tell us about this tire and discuss its advantages and limitations.

Performance Breakdown

  • Wet Performance (Overall: 9.1)
    • Hydroplaning Resistance: 9.1
    • Wet Traction: 9.1

These scores indicate that the WS90 excels in wet conditions, providing reliable resistance against hydroplaning and maintaining solid traction when roads are snowy or slushy.

  • Dry Performance (Overall: 8.8)
    • Corner Stability: 8.7
    • Dry Traction: 8.7
    • Steering Response: 8.9

On dry roads, the WS90 offers robust stability and responsiveness, making it a safe option for winter driving even when the roads aren’t covered in snow.

  • Winter/Snow Performance (Overall: 9.2)
    • Light Snow Traction: 9.6
    • Deep Snow Traction: 9.3
    • Ice Traction: 8.9

The tire shines in light and deep snow, offering excellent traction that enhances safety and control. Its performance on ice is also strong, though slightly lower compared to its snow traction.

  • Comfort (Overall: 8.5)
    • Ride Quality: 8.9
    • Noise: 8.2

The WS90 scores well in ride quality, ensuring a comfortable driving experience, but some users might find it a bit noisier compared to other winter tires.

  • Treadwear (Overall: 8.4)

The WS90 offers decent durability, but its tread life might be shorter than some all-season tires due to the soft rubber compound required for cold weather performance.

Pros

  • Superior traction in both light and deep snow.
  • Excellent hydroplaning resistance and wet traction.
  • Good steering response and corner stability.

Cons

  • Slightly noisier than some competitors.
  • Tread life may be shorter compared to all-season alternatives due to softer rubber used for cold grip.

Michelin X-Ice Snow

Customer Rating

Overall Rating

8.8 of 10

Wet Weather

8.6 of 10

Winter Weather

9.0 of 10

Tread Wear

8.8 of 10

Dry Weather

8.8 of 10

Ride Comfort

8.7 of 10

UTQG

Uniform Tire Quality Grade

UTQG Treadwear Rating: N/A

UTQG Traction Rating: N/A

UTQG Temperature Rating: N/A

Mileage Warranty

None

Find The Best Price

Key Performance Metrics

Hydroplaning: 9.1 of 10

Wet Grip: 9.1 of 10


Cornering: 8.5 of 10

Dry Grip: 8.8 of 10

Responsiveness: 8.6 of 10

Mild Snow Grip: 9.3

Heavy Snow Grip: 9.0

Ice Grip: 8.7


Comfort Level: 9.0 of 10

Road Noise: 8.5 of 10

The Michelin X-Ice Snow is another top contender in the winter tire market, known for its durability and excellent ice performance. Let’s delve into the specific performance metrics of this tire to understand its strengths and where it might lag behind.

Performance Breakdown

  • Wet Performance (Overall: 8.8)
    • Hydroplaning Resistance: 8.7
    • Wet Traction: 8.8

The Michelin X-Ice Snow performs well in wet conditions, offering dependable traction and a solid defense against hydroplaning, which is crucial for maintaining control on slushy roads.

  • Dry Performance (Overall: 8.7)
    • Corner Stability: 8.5
    • Dry Traction: 8.8
    • Steering Response: 8.7

While slightly less impressive than its wet performance, the X-Ice Snow still provides adequate stability and responsiveness on dry winter roads, ensuring a secure driving experience.

  • Winter/Snow Performance (Overall: 9.0)
    • Light Snow Traction: 9.3
    • Deep Snow Traction: 9.0
    • Ice Traction: 8.7

This tire offers strong traction in light and moderately deep snow. However, its ice traction, while still good, falls a bit short compared to the Bridgestone Blizzak WS90, which might be a consideration for those in icier climates.

  • Comfort (Overall: 8.8)
    • Ride Quality: 9.0
    • Noise: 8.6

The Michelin X-Ice Snow scores higher in comfort compared to the Bridgestone Blizzak WS90. It offers a smoother ride and is quieter, which can make a significant difference in daily driving comfort.

  • Treadwear (Overall: 8.8)

One of the notable strengths of the X-Ice Snow is its tread life. It is designed to last longer, even in harsh winter conditions, making it a cost-effective choice over time.

Pros

  • Excellent ride quality with lower noise levels, enhancing driver comfort.
  • Good traction in both wet and snowy conditions.
  • Longer tread life which makes it a cost-efficient option in the long run.

Cons

  • Ice traction, though good, does not match the highest performance found in some competitors.
  • Corner stability and dry traction are adequate but not standout, potentially affecting performance in non-snowy but cold dry conditions.
Even Though Snow Tires Are Specialized, They Still Need To Tackle A Range Of Driving Conditions.
Even Though Snow Tires Are Specialized, They Still Need To Tackle A Range Of Driving Conditions.

Comparative Analysis

When choosing between the Bridgestone Blizzak WS90 and the Michelin X-Ice Snow, it’s crucial to understand how each performs under specific conditions and what might be best for your particular driving needs. Here, we’ll break down the differences and similarities to help guide your decision.

Performance in Winter Conditions

  • Snow and Ice Traction
    • The Bridgestone Blizzak WS90 excels in snow traction, particularly in light to moderate snow, with scores of 9.6 for light snow traction and 9.3 for deep snow traction. Its ice traction score of 8.9 is also commendable.
    • The Michelin X-Ice Snow offers strong performance in snow with scores of 9.3 for light snow traction and 9.0 for deep snow traction. However, its ice traction score of 8.7, while good, is slightly lower than that of the Blizzak WS90.

For those in regions with heavy snowfall or particularly icy roads, the Bridgestone Blizzak WS90 might be the slightly better option due to its superior traction in these conditions.

Wet and Dry Road Performance

  • Handling on Wet Roads
    • Both tires perform well in wet conditions, but the Blizzak WS90 edges out slightly with a wet performance rating of 9.1 compared to the 8.8 of the X-Ice Snow.
  • Performance on Dry Roads
    • In dry conditions, the WS90 also has a slight advantage in terms of corner stability and steering response. It’s an important factor for those who experience cold, but not necessarily wet or snowy, winter conditions.

Considering the marginal differences in performance, the choice might depend on the prevalence of wet versus dry conditions in your area.

Comfort and Treadwear

  • Ride Comfort and Noise
    • The Michelin X-Ice Snow leads in comfort with higher scores for ride quality and noise reduction. This could make a significant difference for drivers who value a quieter and smoother ride.
  • Durability and Treadwear
    • Michelin’s X-Ice Snow also offers superior treadwear ratings, suggesting that it may last longer than the Blizzak WS90. This could translate into better value over the lifespan of the tires.

If long-term cost and comfort are major factors for you, the Michelin X-Ice Snow might be the more appealing option.

Cost Considerations

  • The initial cost of each tire can vary, but considering the longer tread life of the Michelin X-Ice Snow, it might offer better overall value. However, for those prioritizing performance in severe winter conditions, the additional investment in the Blizzak WS90 could be justified.

The Verdict

In conclusion, the Bridgestone Blizzak WS90 is ideal for drivers who face severe winter conditions and prioritize performance in snow and ice. On the other hand, the Michelin X-Ice Snow is well-suited for those who prefer a quieter, more comfortable ride and appreciate a tire that could offer longer service life, especially in less extreme winter environments.

Other Competitors in the Market

While the Bridgestone Blizzak WS90 and the Michelin X-Ice Snow are standout choices in the winter tire market, there are several other competitors worth considering. Each offers unique features and performance metrics that may suit different driving conditions and preferences. Let’s take a closer look at some of these alternatives: Continental VikingContact 7, Goodyear WinterCommand Ultra, and Nokian Hakkapeliitta R3.

Continental VikingContact 7

Continental VikingContact 7
Continental VikingContact 7

Performance Overview

  • Wet: 8.7 overall, with balanced hydroplaning resistance and wet traction.
  • Dry: 8.6 overall, providing decent corner stability and dry traction.
  • Winter/Snow: 8.8 overall, with very good performance in light snow (9.2) but slightly lower in deep snow and ice.
  • Comfort: 8.9 overall, excelling in ride quality which makes it one of the more comfortable winter tires.
  • Treadwear: 8.5, indicating reasonable durability but not as high as some competitors.

Pros:

  • Excellent ride quality making it a comfortable choice.
  • Good performance in light snow conditions.

Cons:

  • Slightly lower performance in deep snow and on ice compared to top contenders.

Goodyear WinterCommand Ultra

Goodyear WinterCommand Ultra
Goodyear WinterCommand Ultra

Performance Overview

  • Wet: 8.9 overall, showing strong hydroplaning resistance and wet traction.
  • Dry: 8.7 overall, with solid corner stability and good steering response.
  • Winter/Snow: 8.9 overall, with strong light snow traction (9.3) but slightly weaker in deep snow and ice.
  • Comfort: 8.5 overall, comparable to other high-performance winter tires.
  • Treadwear: 8.4, on par with other specialized winter tires.

Pros:

  • Strong wet traction, making it a reliable choice for slushy conditions.
  • Good light snow performance.

Cons:

  • Ice traction and deep snow performance are not as strong, which might be a drawback in harsher winter climates.

Nokian Hakkapeliitta R3

Nokian Hakkapeliitta R3
Nokian Hakkapeliitta R3

Performance Overview

  • Wet: 8.8 overall, with outstanding hydroplaning resistance (9.5) but lower wet traction.
  • Dry: 7.1 overall, which is significantly lower than its competitors, indicating reduced performance on dry cold roads.
  • Winter/Snow: 9.4 overall, with exceptional performance in both light and deep snow, and very good ice traction.
  • Comfort: 8.8 overall, providing a comfortable ride with good noise levels.
  • Treadwear: 8.0, which suggests a shorter lifespan compared to others.

Pros:

  • Exceptional snow and ice traction, possibly the best in class for severe winter conditions.
  • High hydroplaning resistance enhances wet weather safety.

Cons:

  • Lower dry road performance and shorter tread life, which could be a concern in mixed-weather regions.

These competitors each bring strengths to the table that could make them the right fit depending on specific needs such as comfort, durability, or performance in extreme conditions. When choosing a winter tire, consider how these factors align with the typical winter driving conditions you encounter and the performance characteristics you value most.

Resources

Below are some links you may find helpful when learning about tires:

Final Thoughts

Choosing the right winter tire involves balancing several factors, including how your tires perform in snow and ice, their longevity, and your own comfort preferences.

The Bridgestone Blizzak WS90 shines in severe winter conditions, providing excellent traction on both snow and ice. The Michelin X-Ice Snow, meanwhile, offers a smoother and quieter ride with the bonus of longer tread life, making it a great choice for less extreme conditions and daily commuting.

Consider your typical winter driving conditions and what you value most in a tire to make the best choice for your vehicle.

Good luck and happy motoring.

About The Author

Winter driving can be treacherous, and the right tires might just be what stands between you and the challenges of snowy, icy roads. But with so many options, like the Bridgestone Blizzak WS90 and the Michelin X-Ice Snow, how do you choose? If you’ve ever wondered about the differences between these two top-rated winter tires, you’re in the right place.

The Bridgestone Blizzak WS90 offers slightly better performance in ice and snow conditions, making it ideal for harsher winter environments. The Michelin X-Ice Snow excels in comfort and durability, suitable for those prioritizing a quiet ride and longer tire life.

In this article, we will delve into a detailed comparison of the Bridgestone Blizzak WS90 and Michelin X-Ice Snow, covering their performance in various conditions, comfort, tread life, and also examine how they stand against other competitors in the market.

Bridgestone Blizzak WS90

Customer Rating

Overall Rating

8.8 of 10

Wet Weather

9.1 of 10

Winter Weather

9.2 of 10

Tread Wear

8.4 of 10

Dry Weather

8.8 of 10

Ride Comfort

8.5 of 10

UTQG

Uniform Tire Quality Grade

UTQG Treadwear Rating: N/A

UTQG Traction Rating: N/A

UTQG Temperature Rating: N/A

Mileage Warranty

None

Find The Best Price

Key Performance Metrics

Hydroplaning: 9.1 of 10

Wet Grip: 9.1 of 10


Cornering: 8.7 of 10

Dry Grip: 9.0 of 10

Responsiveness: 8.7 of 10

Mild Snow Grip: 9.6

Heavy Snow Grip: 9.3

Ice Grip: 8.9


Comfort Level: 8.9 of 10

Road Noise: 8.2 of 10

The Bridgestone Blizzak WS90 is renowned for its exceptional grip and stability in severe winter conditions. Let’s break down what the performance scores really tell us about this tire and discuss its advantages and limitations.

Performance Breakdown

  • Wet Performance (Overall: 9.1)
    • Hydroplaning Resistance: 9.1
    • Wet Traction: 9.1

These scores indicate that the WS90 excels in wet conditions, providing reliable resistance against hydroplaning and maintaining solid traction when roads are snowy or slushy.

  • Dry Performance (Overall: 8.8)
    • Corner Stability: 8.7
    • Dry Traction: 8.7
    • Steering Response: 8.9

On dry roads, the WS90 offers robust stability and responsiveness, making it a safe option for winter driving even when the roads aren’t covered in snow.

  • Winter/Snow Performance (Overall: 9.2)
    • Light Snow Traction: 9.6
    • Deep Snow Traction: 9.3
    • Ice Traction: 8.9

The tire shines in light and deep snow, offering excellent traction that enhances safety and control. Its performance on ice is also strong, though slightly lower compared to its snow traction.

  • Comfort (Overall: 8.5)
    • Ride Quality: 8.9
    • Noise: 8.2

The WS90 scores well in ride quality, ensuring a comfortable driving experience, but some users might find it a bit noisier compared to other winter tires.

  • Treadwear (Overall: 8.4)

The WS90 offers decent durability, but its tread life might be shorter than some all-season tires due to the soft rubber compound required for cold weather performance.

Pros

  • Superior traction in both light and deep snow.
  • Excellent hydroplaning resistance and wet traction.
  • Good steering response and corner stability.

Cons

  • Slightly noisier than some competitors.
  • Tread life may be shorter compared to all-season alternatives due to softer rubber used for cold grip.

Michelin X-Ice Snow

Customer Rating

Overall Rating

8.8 of 10

Wet Weather

8.6 of 10

Winter Weather

9.0 of 10

Tread Wear

8.8 of 10

Dry Weather

8.8 of 10

Ride Comfort

8.7 of 10

UTQG

Uniform Tire Quality Grade

UTQG Treadwear Rating: N/A

UTQG Traction Rating: N/A

UTQG Temperature Rating: N/A

Mileage Warranty

None

Find The Best Price

Key Performance Metrics

Hydroplaning: 9.1 of 10

Wet Grip: 9.1 of 10


Cornering: 8.5 of 10

Dry Grip: 8.8 of 10

Responsiveness: 8.6 of 10

Mild Snow Grip: 9.3

Heavy Snow Grip: 9.0

Ice Grip: 8.7


Comfort Level: 9.0 of 10

Road Noise: 8.5 of 10

The Michelin X-Ice Snow is another top contender in the winter tire market, known for its durability and excellent ice performance. Let’s delve into the specific performance metrics of this tire to understand its strengths and where it might lag behind.

Performance Breakdown

  • Wet Performance (Overall: 8.8)
    • Hydroplaning Resistance: 8.7
    • Wet Traction: 8.8

The Michelin X-Ice Snow performs well in wet conditions, offering dependable traction and a solid defense against hydroplaning, which is crucial for maintaining control on slushy roads.

  • Dry Performance (Overall: 8.7)
    • Corner Stability: 8.5
    • Dry Traction: 8.8
    • Steering Response: 8.7

While slightly less impressive than its wet performance, the X-Ice Snow still provides adequate stability and responsiveness on dry winter roads, ensuring a secure driving experience.

  • Winter/Snow Performance (Overall: 9.0)
    • Light Snow Traction: 9.3
    • Deep Snow Traction: 9.0
    • Ice Traction: 8.7

This tire offers strong traction in light and moderately deep snow. However, its ice traction, while still good, falls a bit short compared to the Bridgestone Blizzak WS90, which might be a consideration for those in icier climates.

  • Comfort (Overall: 8.8)
    • Ride Quality: 9.0
    • Noise: 8.6

The Michelin X-Ice Snow scores higher in comfort compared to the Bridgestone Blizzak WS90. It offers a smoother ride and is quieter, which can make a significant difference in daily driving comfort.

  • Treadwear (Overall: 8.8)

One of the notable strengths of the X-Ice Snow is its tread life. It is designed to last longer, even in harsh winter conditions, making it a cost-effective choice over time.

Pros

  • Excellent ride quality with lower noise levels, enhancing driver comfort.
  • Good traction in both wet and snowy conditions.
  • Longer tread life which makes it a cost-efficient option in the long run.

Cons

  • Ice traction, though good, does not match the highest performance found in some competitors.
  • Corner stability and dry traction are adequate but not standout, potentially affecting performance in non-snowy but cold dry conditions.
Even Though Snow Tires Are Specialized, They Still Need To Tackle A Range Of Driving Conditions.
Even Though Snow Tires Are Specialized, They Still Need To Tackle A Range Of Driving Conditions.

Comparative Analysis

When choosing between the Bridgestone Blizzak WS90 and the Michelin X-Ice Snow, it’s crucial to understand how each performs under specific conditions and what might be best for your particular driving needs. Here, we’ll break down the differences and similarities to help guide your decision.

Performance in Winter Conditions

  • Snow and Ice Traction
    • The Bridgestone Blizzak WS90 excels in snow traction, particularly in light to moderate snow, with scores of 9.6 for light snow traction and 9.3 for deep snow traction. Its ice traction score of 8.9 is also commendable.
    • The Michelin X-Ice Snow offers strong performance in snow with scores of 9.3 for light snow traction and 9.0 for deep snow traction. However, its ice traction score of 8.7, while good, is slightly lower than that of the Blizzak WS90.

For those in regions with heavy snowfall or particularly icy roads, the Bridgestone Blizzak WS90 might be the slightly better option due to its superior traction in these conditions.

Wet and Dry Road Performance

  • Handling on Wet Roads
    • Both tires perform well in wet conditions, but the Blizzak WS90 edges out slightly with a wet performance rating of 9.1 compared to the 8.8 of the X-Ice Snow.
  • Performance on Dry Roads
    • In dry conditions, the WS90 also has a slight advantage in terms of corner stability and steering response. It’s an important factor for those who experience cold, but not necessarily wet or snowy, winter conditions.

Considering the marginal differences in performance, the choice might depend on the prevalence of wet versus dry conditions in your area.

Comfort and Treadwear

  • Ride Comfort and Noise
    • The Michelin X-Ice Snow leads in comfort with higher scores for ride quality and noise reduction. This could make a significant difference for drivers who value a quieter and smoother ride.
  • Durability and Treadwear
    • Michelin’s X-Ice Snow also offers superior treadwear ratings, suggesting that it may last longer than the Blizzak WS90. This could translate into better value over the lifespan of the tires.

If long-term cost and comfort are major factors for you, the Michelin X-Ice Snow might be the more appealing option.

Cost Considerations

  • The initial cost of each tire can vary, but considering the longer tread life of the Michelin X-Ice Snow, it might offer better overall value. However, for those prioritizing performance in severe winter conditions, the additional investment in the Blizzak WS90 could be justified.

The Verdict

In conclusion, the Bridgestone Blizzak WS90 is ideal for drivers who face severe winter conditions and prioritize performance in snow and ice. On the other hand, the Michelin X-Ice Snow is well-suited for those who prefer a quieter, more comfortable ride and appreciate a tire that could offer longer service life, especially in less extreme winter environments.

Other Competitors in the Market

While the Bridgestone Blizzak WS90 and the Michelin X-Ice Snow are standout choices in the winter tire market, there are several other competitors worth considering. Each offers unique features and performance metrics that may suit different driving conditions and preferences. Let’s take a closer look at some of these alternatives: Continental VikingContact 7, Goodyear WinterCommand Ultra, and Nokian Hakkapeliitta R3.

Continental VikingContact 7

Continental VikingContact 7
Continental VikingContact 7

Performance Overview

  • Wet: 8.7 overall, with balanced hydroplaning resistance and wet traction.
  • Dry: 8.6 overall, providing decent corner stability and dry traction.
  • Winter/Snow: 8.8 overall, with very good performance in light snow (9.2) but slightly lower in deep snow and ice.
  • Comfort: 8.9 overall, excelling in ride quality which makes it one of the more comfortable winter tires.
  • Treadwear: 8.5, indicating reasonable durability but not as high as some competitors.

Pros:

  • Excellent ride quality making it a comfortable choice.
  • Good performance in light snow conditions.

Cons:

  • Slightly lower performance in deep snow and on ice compared to top contenders.

Goodyear WinterCommand Ultra

Goodyear WinterCommand Ultra
Goodyear WinterCommand Ultra

Performance Overview

  • Wet: 8.9 overall, showing strong hydroplaning resistance and wet traction.
  • Dry: 8.7 overall, with solid corner stability and good steering response.
  • Winter/Snow: 8.9 overall, with strong light snow traction (9.3) but slightly weaker in deep snow and ice.
  • Comfort: 8.5 overall, comparable to other high-performance winter tires.
  • Treadwear: 8.4, on par with other specialized winter tires.

Pros:

  • Strong wet traction, making it a reliable choice for slushy conditions.
  • Good light snow performance.

Cons:

  • Ice traction and deep snow performance are not as strong, which might be a drawback in harsher winter climates.

Nokian Hakkapeliitta R3

Nokian Hakkapeliitta R3
Nokian Hakkapeliitta R3

Performance Overview

  • Wet: 8.8 overall, with outstanding hydroplaning resistance (9.5) but lower wet traction.
  • Dry: 7.1 overall, which is significantly lower than its competitors, indicating reduced performance on dry cold roads.
  • Winter/Snow: 9.4 overall, with exceptional performance in both light and deep snow, and very good ice traction.
  • Comfort: 8.8 overall, providing a comfortable ride with good noise levels.
  • Treadwear: 8.0, which suggests a shorter lifespan compared to others.

Pros:

  • Exceptional snow and ice traction, possibly the best in class for severe winter conditions.
  • High hydroplaning resistance enhances wet weather safety.

Cons:

  • Lower dry road performance and shorter tread life, which could be a concern in mixed-weather regions.

These competitors each bring strengths to the table that could make them the right fit depending on specific needs such as comfort, durability, or performance in extreme conditions. When choosing a winter tire, consider how these factors align with the typical winter driving conditions you encounter and the performance characteristics you value most.

Resources

Below are some links you may find helpful when learning about tires:

Final Thoughts

Choosing the right winter tire involves balancing several factors, including how your tires perform in snow and ice, their longevity, and your own comfort preferences.

The Bridgestone Blizzak WS90 shines in severe winter conditions, providing excellent traction on both snow and ice. The Michelin X-Ice Snow, meanwhile, offers a smoother and quieter ride with the bonus of longer tread life, making it a great choice for less extreme conditions and daily commuting.

Consider your typical winter driving conditions and what you value most in a tire to make the best choice for your vehicle.

Good luck and happy motoring.



About The Author

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